adaptation: a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment or reproduce

aid: help, assist, or support

ameobacytes: used in processing food.

anus: the opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste matter moves through the body.

Ancestoral: Something derived or gained from those from whom one is descended, especially if more remote than a grandparent; a forebear.

asexual reproduction: reproductive process that involves only one parent and offspring are identical to the parent

Amphibians: any of a class (Amphibia) of cold-blooded vertebrates (as frogs, toads, or salamanders) intermediate in many characters between fishes and reptiles and having gilled aquatic larvae and air-breathing adults.

Amplexus: The copulatory embrace of frogs and toads, during which the male fertilizes the eggs that are released by the female.


budding: a form of asexual reproduction where a bud or outgrowth from the end or side of the parent cell emerges and develops into a new organism.

buoyancy: the ability to float in water, air, or in other fluids.

burrowing: to make a hole or a tunnel


capsule: a small case, envelope, or covering

carnivorous: describes an organism that eats animal matter (meat)

cartilage: a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone

chitin: A tough, protective substance that is the main material of an exoskeleton.

choanocytes: also known as collar cells, they form in a line in the sponge's inner cavity.

circulatory system: The system made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood that circulates blood throughout the body, delivers nutrients and other essential materials to cells, and removes waste products

classify: process of grouping things based on their similarities

clitellum: the swollen saddle like region on the worm's body

cell: a usually microscopic structure containing nuclear

centipede: chiefly nocturnal predacious arthropod having a flattened body of 15 to 173 segments each with a pair of legs, the foremost pair being modified as prehensors

Compound: Made up of two or more elements or things.

crayfish: Any crustacean resembling the lobster, but smaller, and found in fresh waters

crocodillians: a large, predatory, semiaquatic reptile of an order that comprises the crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gharial. Crocodilians are distinguished by long jaws, short legs, and a powerful tail. • Order Crocodylia: three families.

Concave: curving inward

crustacean: Any arthropod of the subphylum Crustacea, including lobsters, crabs, shrimp, barnacles and woodlice.

ctenidia: the gills of a mollusks

cyclostomic: toothed mouth

cylindrical: circular in shape

Carnivorous: Flesh eating.


diploblastic: having a body made of two cellular layers only.

Disease: any abnormal condition in a plant that interferes with its vital physiological processes, caused by pathogenic microorganisms, parasites, unfavorable environmental, genetic, or nutritional factors, etc.

DNA: genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring

Dependent: Unable to stand alone


ecosystem: A complex community of living things and the environment in which they live.

ectoderm: the outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo

egg: a female reproductive cell

endoderm: the innermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo

ectotherm: an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat; "cold-blooded"

endotherm: an animal whose body controls and regulates its temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces; "warm-blooded"

entrapment: trapping that an organism is uses for nutrients such as food

environment : The surrounding area, conditions, and influences organisms live in.

epithelium: The covering of the internal and external organs of the body.

estuary: The part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides.

exoskeleton: a rigid covering for the body in some invertebrate animals

ear canal: the tubular passage of the outer ear leading to the tympanic membrane

exterior: outer; being on the outer side

extinct: a species that no longer exists


fertilization (fertilized): the joining of a sperm and egg cell

Fins: Body parts that help fish swim in water.

function: A specific occupation or role


gills: The gills take gases that are exchanged between the fish and the surrounding water.

glands: an organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular chemical substances

grub: a soft thick wormlike larva of certain beetles and other insects


hemisphere: Half of the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere or Eastern Hemisphere.

herbivores: Animals that eat only plants.

hermaphrodite: Each adult can act as either the male or the female in reproduction.

heterotroph: an organism that can not make its own food

hibernation: passing the Winter in a sleeping or inactive condition.


insects: Any of numerous usually small arthropod animals of the class Insecta, having an adult stage characterized by three pairs of legs and a body segmented into head, thorax, and abdomen and usually having two pairs of wings. Insects include the flies, crickets, mosquitoes, beetles, butterflies, and bees.

internal: inside the body

intertidal: occurring between high-tide and low-tide marks

invertebrate: an animal that does not have a backbone

immobile: not capable of moving



keratin: undissolvable protein found in hair, nails, and skin.


larva: the young of any invertebrate animal.

Lenses: A piece of substance, usually glassy, used in the light and magnification of vision.

limbs: an arm or a leg of a person or a four-legged, animal or a bird's wing

locomotion:the power or ability to move


mangrove forests: A community of mangrove trees that grow in tropical and sub-tropical zones. They are usually found off the coast of Africa, Mexico, and Australia.

medusa: The umbrella-shaped type of jelly.

marsupials: are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch

metamorphosis: a change of the form or nature of a thing or person into a completely different one, by natural or supernatural

millipede: any of numerous herbivorous nonpoisonous arthropods having a cylindrical body of 20 to 100 or more segments most with two pairs of legs

monotremes: primitive egg-laying mammals restricted to Australia and New Guinea

mucus:A material produced by glands in the airways, nose, and sinuses

Mutalistic:mutualism is an interaction between two or more species where both species derive benefit.


nocturnal: active during the night.

notochord: a flexible rod that supports a chordate's back


occipital condyle: each of two rounded knobs on the occipital bone that form a joint with the first cervical vertebra

Offspring: are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents.

omnivores: are animals who eat both meat and plants.

omnivorous: to be an omnivore.

organ: a structure in the body that is composed of different kinds of tissue

Organic Material: made from or pertaining to living organisms.


photosynthesis: The process in green plants and certain other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct.

placentals: mammals that give birth to their young

planula: The free-swimming, ciliated larva of a cnidarian.

Pollinate: to make (a plant) fertile by carrying pollen to it from another flower



Reptiles: a cold blooded animal that includes snakes, alligators, and tortoises

Rodents:Mammals, such as a mouse, rat, squirrel or beaver, that are characterized by large incisors adapted for gnawing or nibbling.


Saddle: a whitish of slime that carries the worms eggs

Secretory: (of a cell, gland, or organ) produce and discharge (a substance) : insulin is secreted in response to rising levels of glucose in the blood

Scales: Thin, overlapping flat plates that form a protective outer covering on fish, reptiles, and the legs of birds.

Secrete: to give off, like a scent.

Segment: One of the parts into which something is divided or separated.

Sexual reproduction: the reproductive process that involves two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new organism which differs from both parents

Sperm: a male reproduction cell

spermatophore: protein capsule containing a mass of spermatozoa, transferred during mating in various insects, arthropods, cephalopod mollusks, etc.

sprawled: spread out over a large area in n untidy or irregular way

spicule: a small needlelike structure or part, such as one of the silicate or calcium carbonate processes supporting the soft tissue of certain invertebrates, especially sponges.

Spiracle: Any of several tracheal openings in the exoskeleton of an insect or a spider.

spongin: a scleroprotein occurring in the form of fibers that form the skeleton of certain sponges.

Sediment: Solid fragments of inorganic or organic material that come from the weathering of rock and are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice.

subtidal: Waters below the low tide mark

spongocoel: The central cavity of a sponge, which opens to the outside by way of the osculum.

swimbladder: The swimbladder is a unique organ found only in fish and is sometimes called the 'air bladder.' It is a smooth, gas-filled organ found in the abdomen of most fish.


Tissue: a group of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism

Tympanic Membrane
: a thin membrane that closes externally the cavity of the middle ear and functions in the mechanical reception of sound waves and in their transmission to the site of sensory reception

Thrust: force in an animal's direction.


Utilize: to put to use; turn to profitable acount.


vertebrate: an animal that has a spine

a person or an animal that does not eat meat and eats vegetables, fruit, or grain.